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Biography of Murad II

murat II was born at Amasya in June 1404. Murat’s childhood was spent in Amasya and Bursa. Like his father, when he reached 12, he was appointed as governor to the Greek province headquartered in Amasya, which encompassed the Amasya, Tokat, Sivas, Çorum and Osmancık areas. After the Battle of Ankara in 1402, 1416 was one of the most challenging years for the Ottoman Empire. That year, when Sheikh Bedrettin was revolting in the Deliorman area of Bulgaria, Çelebi Mehmet’s brother Mustafa was seeking to seize Thessaloniki by working with the Wallachian voivode to capture the Edirne Palace. The Venetians also burnt the Turkish fleet near Gallipoli and blocked the strait on May 29, 1416. In the same year, Börklüce Mustafa, who took advantage of Çelebi Mehmet’s presence in Rumelia, also revolted in Manisa and İzmir districts. II. Murat, with the duty he took in Anatolia in his father’s absence, marched to Saruhan and Izmir districts with Amasya and Sivas armies to quell the insurrection begun by Börklüce Mustafa under the command of Bayezid Pasha. Taking advantage of their departure from Amasya, the Mongolian nomads dubbed Black Tatars in the region ravaged Amasya. For this reason, Prince Murat and Bayezid Pasha came to Amasya a year later and subdued this insurrection.

He Did Not Give His Brothers to Byzantium

II. Murat was 17 years old when he replaced his father as monarch. Çelebi Mehmet forged an arrangement with the Byzantine emperor to continue holding his brother Mustafa captive so that he could transfer the duty of the state to his son Murat. Murat was the eldest son of Çelebi Mehmet. One of his younger boys, Ahmet, died before him, and his other sons were Mustafa, Ahmet, Yusuf and Mahmut Çelebi. When Mustafa was 11 years old, he was transported to the sanjak principality of Hamit Province. Yusuf was eight years old and Mahmut was seven years old, and in line with the arrangement made by Çelebi Mehmet with Byzantium, Yusuf and Mahmut would be left prisoner to Byzantium in return for Murat’s succession to the throne and Mustafa not being freed. The government of Anatolia would be entrusted to his other son, Mustafa. Additionally, tribute would be given. Thus, Çelebi Mehmet would pass the duty to his son Murat without a battle for the crown. II. When Murat arrived to the throne, Bayezid Pasha was directing state affairs as grand vizier and governor of Rumelia. Bayezid Pasha assured the Byzantine ambassadors that Yusuf and Mahmut Çelebi would not be given over. Thereupon II. Manuel Palaiologos negotiated a deal with Mustafa, who was exiled in Lemnos, and freed İzmiroğlu Cüneyt Bey along with him, and with a navy of ten ships and Byzantine troops under the leadership of Dimitrios Leontarios, he transported them to Gallipoli in September 1421.

Principalities Revolted Again

II. Not only Byzantium but even the princes of Anatolia revolted against Murat. Germiyanoğlu Yakup Bey did not acknowledge his sultanate and allied with Mustafa Çelebi, the sanjak ruler of Hamit Province, stationed in Isparta. Karamanoğlu also occupied the territory of Hamit Province, centered on Isparta. II. Murat despatched an ambassador, resorted to the strategy of appeasement and accepted the situation. Meanwhile, Menteşeoğlu, who was placed under control in 1415, also rebelled and declared his independence. In the same year, Menteşeoğulları Ahmet and Leys issued coins in their own names in 1421, like their father İlyas Bey. Meanwhile, Aydınoğlu and Saruhan Principality reclaimed part of their holdings. II. Although Murat sought to crush these uprisings through diplomacy, he could not gain results. On the other side, İsfendiyar Bey revolted against his son Kasım Bey, who settled in Çankırı, Kalecik and Tosya under the protection of Çelebi Mehmet. II. Murat deployed armies against İsfendiyar Bey. Isfendiyar Bey, who escaped to Sinop, made peace in the fall of 1421 with the intercession of other Anatolian princes.

Düzmece Mustafa Rebellion Left the State in a Difficult Situation

II. What rendered Murat impotent in the face of these uprisings was his battle for the throne with his uncle Mustafa. In the incident that went down in history as the Düzmece Mustafa Revolt, Prince Mustafa was cordially greeted by the people at Gallipoli, as he landed by ships. However, Shah Melik Bey resisted him at the Gallipoli Fortress. Thereupon, Mustafa, who had İzmiroğlu Cüneyt besiege Gallipoli, himself advanced towards Edirne. Bayezid Pasha, who took measures to prevent Mustafa, who was known as the son of Yıldırım Bayezid and the sultan wherever he set foot, from invading Edirne, challenged him in Sazlıdere, but he could not prevent the Rumelian men under his command from joining Mustafa Çelebi’s side. Thereupon he complied and obeyed. However, he could not avoid death due to Cüneyt Bey’s insistence. Upon the news that Mustafa invaded Edirne, the Gallipoli Fortress also raised the flag of surrender. However, once Mustafa and Cüneyt took over Gallipoli, they disregarded the arrangement they made with Byzantium and refused to yield the citadel. Mustafa Çelebi, who ruled the Gallipoli crossing and the navy, also held the Bosphorus. II. Murat established an alliance with the Yeni Foça podesta, Giovanni Adorno, against his uncle. Giovanni Adorno, II, in exchange for the forgiveness of his remaining obligations from the Manisa alum mines. He pledged to prepare ships and men for Murat. II. With the support he obtained from the Genoese, Murat acquired enormous authority in defeating the insurrection of his uncle Mustafa. Prince Mustafa traveled to Anatolia via Gallipoli with 12,000 sipahis and 5000 troops on January 20, 1422. Janissaries, who wished to obstruct the route to Bursa, demolished the bridge over the foot of Ulubat Lake. Thus, the raid that Mustafa planned to carry out with a force of 4000 people was left unresolved. During the days when Mustafa was residing on the other bank of Lake Ulubat, Mihaloğlu Mehmet Bey also led the margraves to II. He pushed Murat to support him. Cüneyt was secretly granted the principality of Izmir and the province of Aydın, allowing him to depart. Cüneyt’s flight scattered Mustafa’s troops. When Mustafa withdrew, Hacı İvaz Pasha crossed the wooden bridge with the janissaries and murdered his foot men with the sword. Rumelia margraves also arrived and II. They professed their fealty to Murat. Although Mustafa, who lost his army, managed to travel to Gallipoli, II. Murat caught up with the Genoese ships. II. Murat caught his uncle Mustafa near Wallachia and had him murdered at Edirne in the winter months of 1422.

His brother Mustafa became an issue

After many hardships, he cured the damage inflicted by his uncle Mustafa. Murat initially initiated action against Byzantium in June 1422. However, he could not achieve any results from the siege that lasted 50 days. Because at the same time, his younger brother Mustafa, who was only 13 years old, attacked Bursa in August 1422 with the backing of Karaman and Germiyan lords. Thereupon II. Murat went to Edirne, leaving a small army to hold the city. Meanwhile, İsfendiyar Bey also backed Prince Mustafa’s seizure of Bursa. Wallachia Bey, who was an ally of Candaroğulları in Rumelia, also attacked. Venice and Hungary also took their position in this alliance. Thus, another enormous dilemma that would go down in history as the Little Mustafa Incident II. He arrived in front of Murat. However, Prince Mustafa could not resist the armies of Mihaoğlu Bey who came to battle with him and took refuge in Istanbul. Mustafa, who traveled to Silivri after meeting with the Byzantine emperor here, could not hold his own against the Ottoman warriors in Rumelia and had to return to Kocaeli this time. From there he marched to Iznik, collected more men and seized a chunk of the Bursa Plain. A substantial section of Anatolia seemed to obey Mustafa, who settled at Iznik. For this reason, a two-headed scenario evolved in the state. Thereupon, II. Murat chose to move to Bursa under the encouragement of his aunt Yörgüç. Before going off, he dispatched Mihaloğlu as the main force. Mustafa’s lala, İlyas Bey, quit Mustafa’s side because he was offered the Anatolian governorship. Now the Iznik defense was weakened. Despite this, Mihaloğlu was critically hurt during an evacuation movement. Iznik, which housed Mustafa, was looted. İlyas Bey personally seized Mustafa, whom he served as a lala, and gave him over to his brother Murat on February 20, 1423. II. Murat had his brother killed at Iznik. After quiet was restored in Southern Marmara, the Ottoman forces marched on the soldiers of İsfendiyar Bey, who had reached Taraklı, and defeated them. Karaman Bey Mehmet Bey also perished in January 1423, when he was killed by a cannonball shot from the castle as he was besieging Antalya. II from the internal conflict for the Karaman throne. Murat took advantage and had Ibrahim Bey, whom he aided succeed to the throne, sign a pact. In 1421, Karamanoğlu abandoned the Isparta-centered Hamit Province, which his father had conquered, and claimed Ottoman nationality.

Signed a Peace Treaty with Byzantium

II. Murat’s victory in Anatolia terrified the Wallachian lord. Thereupon, he sent his two sons as hostages to show his loyalty and offered peace. In the same days, II. was blockading Byzantium. In May 1423, Murat stormed the Kerme wall with the army under the leadership of Turahan Bey, reached the Peloponnese and laid siege to Thessaloniki. In this process, Venice, which took over the control of Thessaloniki from Byzantium, provoked a fresh crisis. The Venetian State, on the one hand, promised to pay tribute to rescue Thessaloniki, and on the other hand, initiated preparations for a wider invasion against the Ottoman Empire. For this goal, Izmir Bey Cüneyt endeavored to forge an alliance with the Wallachian ruler and the Hungarian monarch. On the same days, he also deployed his fleet under the leadership of Pietro Loredano to Gallipoli. At this period, the greatest concern of the Ottoman Empire was the likelihood of the Byzantine emperor handing Istanbul to Venice. II. For this reason, Murat concluded a peace treaty with the Byzantine emperor through the Genoese on February 22, 1424. In keeping with the agreement, the Emperor pledged to pay a yearly tribute of 300,000 silver pieces and to restore the areas he had conquered after 1402 on the Marmara, Aegean and Black Sea coasts, save for the Silivri and Terkos castles. Thus, the Ottoman Empire reached its frontiers before 1402. The Ottoman Empire, which eliminated Byzantium from being a threat, annihilated Izmir Bey Cüneyt in 1425. After seizing Izmir and Aydın in the same year, he acquired the estates of Menteşeoğulları and the Teke branch of Hamitoğulları.

Second Fake Mustafa Case Happened

In the first part of the 15th century, the Venetians were the strongest state fighting the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians were employing all kinds of ways to keep the Ottoman Empire away from European nations. One of the techniques they utilized was to manufacture a fresh Düzmece Mustafa incident. In the spring of 1425, the Venetian State dispatched a man named Mustafa, whom they said was the son of Yıldırım Bayezid, from Thessaloniki with their own fleet. Kassandra and Kavala fell into the hands of the Venetians. Thus, the Ottoman-Venetian War in 1425-1430 started. The following year the Ottomans made up for their losses. Pazarlı and Sarıca gentlemen opposed Mustafa, who departed Thessaloniki again. The battle also stretched to Albania. Here the Ottomans besieged the Venetian Drac. In October 1425, discussions for an alliance against the Ottomans began between Venice and the Hungarians. The Ottoman army defeated the Wallachian Bey Dan and the Hungarian leader Pippo in 1426.

Murat Was Caught in Three Arms

It was not simple for the Ottoman Empire to hang on to European territory. The Venetian, Serbian, Hungarian and Wallachian allies sought to impede the spread of the Ottoman Empire with invasions from time to time. During the years when the Ottoman Empire was engaged with Europe, Karamanoğlu also allied with the Hungarians and took measures to restore its previous territory. Karamanoğlu, who took Beyşehir, also captured Hamit Province. The Venetian State also made an alliance with the Karamanoğulları as a formidable ally in Anatolia against the Ottoman Empire. In the same days, Shah Ruh, the ruler of the Timurid State, marched into Anatolia with a massive force. This circumstance was accepted with gladness in the Christian community. Venice increased its attacks against the Ottoman Empire in 1429. First he took steps to take Gallipoli. When he could not achieve results, he withdrew. Meanwhile, II. Since Murat was concentrated on the events in the east, he waited instead of responding to the onslaught from the West. II. In order not to offend Shah Ruh, Murat consistently professed his loyalty and stopped a possible attack. The border between the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk State was the Malatya and Divriği line. The Mamluk State did not want the Ottoman Empire to pass to the east of Malatya. Likewise, he wished to retain the Dulkadiroğulları Principality and the Karamanoğulları Principality under his protection. Shah Rukh undertook his second big march to the west in 1429. Shah Rukh’s march enhanced Ottoman-Mamluk ties. Shah Ruh’s defeat of the Karakoyunlu soldiers at the Battle of Selmas Square on 18 September 1329 disturbed the Ottomans as much as the Mamluks. However, Shah Rukh’s decision to return to Herat from Azerbaijan provided them a sense of comfort.

He Waited Five Years to Take Thessalonica

II turned Shah Ruh’s departure into an opportunity. In order to end the Thessaloniki situation that had been going on for five years, Murat marched on Thessaloniki with his full force in February 1430 and seized Thessaloniki on 29 March 1430 before the Venetian navy arrived. The Venetian State, which reacted against the Ottoman Empire, assaulted Gallipoli and inflicted considerable losses. He also blocked all forms of military and economic actions of the Ottomans in the Straits. This sentence had a deterring impact on the Ottoman Empire. With the peace treaty of July 1430 signed in Lapseki, Thessaloniki was acknowledged as Ottoman territory, while Venetian control over the cities in Albania and Lepanto was accepted in return for an annual payment of 236 ducats. In addition, the actions of Turkish ships in the Straits were authorized.

Albania Became Ottoman Territory

After the agreement, the Ottoman Empire initiated a war in the Albanian areas belonging to the Genoese. During this conflict, Venice’s neutrality became of significant importance. The Ottomans built their own government in the southern and central sections of Albania, leaving the Albanian lords founded on tribes in the north and mountainous areas as subordinate subjects. The Ottoman armies, who arrived to Yuvan Province following Thessaloniki, also took Ioannina and its surrounds in the same days. While the Ottoman Empire modified the property system in the territories it acquired, it developed a new registration system. Those who did not accept the land arrangement rebelled. Acting against the rebels, Evrenosoğlu Ali Bey was ambushed in a strait and suffered significant losses. II. Murat proceeded to Serez and commanded the crushing of the insurrection. The revolt was subdued in 1433. At that time, the Albanian rebel lords who sought sanctuary in the mountains engaged into relations with the Hungarian monarch. The monarch supported them, assuming that he had acquired a new friend against the Ottomans in the Balkans. In reality, in 1435, he surreptitiously conveyed Davut Çelebi, the son of Prince Yakup, the Ottoman sultanate claimant who was murdered in Kosovo, to Albania. Thus, the Albanian question, which haunted the Ottomans for half a century, began.

Timurid Threat Prevented Going West

II. Murat became neighbors with the Hungarians after expanding the frontiers of the realm to Albania and assuring the loyalty of Wallachia, Serbia and Bosnia. Hungarian Ruler Sigismund demanded confirmation of his superior rule over Bosnia, Serbia, Wallachia and even Danube Bulgaria through the ambassador he sent to Edirne in 1431. II. This letter, which Murat ignored, was a premonition of the forthcoming great conflict. Hungarians began preparations for the struggle in the Balkans. Hungarian King, II. He gathered sultanate aspirants like as the Ottoman prince Davut Çelebi, Memnon Tocco, who claimed claims over Ioannina, and Frujin, who desired the Bulgarian throne, to employ against Murat. In 1434, King of Bosnia II. Tvrtko and the Serbian Despot Vılkoğlu Georg also found asylum in Sigismund. In reality, the Serbian tyrant married his daughter Mara to Henry II in 1433. As Murat’s wife, he sent her to Edirne with a hefty dowry (400,000 ducats), while his son Gregor moved to Shkodra with the margrave Ishak Bey and took up previous claims against the Venetians in Zeta. Despite this, he took part in the coalition against the Ottoman Empire. II.

Murat despatched his margraves to Wallachia and Transylvania in 1436 to prevent the coalition against the Ottomans. However, Timurid monarch Shahrukh went towards the west again in 1435, II. He prevented Murat’s mission to Europe. Shah Ruh aspired to be regarded as the single king of the globe and to see all Anatolian rulers under his protection. In July 1435, it was granted to Karayülük and his sons, Dulkadirli Nâsırüddin Mehmet, Karamanoğlu İbrahim Bey and ultimately II. He urged them to function as his own regents with the imperial robes he sent to Murat. II. Murat wore the hilat supplied by Shahruh. This scenario irritated the Mamluk ruler. Because it was operating in partnership with the Ottoman Empire in Anatolia against the Timurids. The development that may create a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Timurids was that the Karakoyunlu Ruler Alexander took sanctuary in Tokat. The Ottomans promptly drove Isfendiyar, who stayed in Tokat until the spring of 1436, from his domains. Because Shah Ruh had cautioned all Anatolian monarchs not to allow Alexander into their own domains.

Anatolia is in Confusion Again

When the menace of the Timurids subsided, II took efforts to unify Anatolia under a single flag. Murat established an alliance with Dulkadiroğulları against Karamanoğulları. The Ottoman armies, combined with the Dulkadirlis, struck from the east and west against the Karamanoğulları, who were pushing the Governor of Amasya, Yörgüç Pasha, and destroyed the Karaman forces in March 1437, seizing Konya, Beyşehir and the whole Hamit Province. After the death of the Hungarian King Sigismund on December 9, 1437, the fight for power began in Hungary. II profited from this struggle. Murat managed to totally abolish the Serbian Despotate in March 1439 and establish authority in Wallachia. However, after putting it under siege for six months, he could not seize Belgrade. Rifle fire, utilized for the first time against the Turks, seems to be one of the causes for this disaster.

Led to the Kosovo War

The defense of Belgrade inspired the Europeans against the Ottomans. The Hungarians, under the direction of Hunyadi Janos, staged a successful invasion in 1441 and attacked the Serbian margrave Mezid Bey. A year later, they defeated Şehabettin Pasha’s troops in Upper Yalomitza. These wins were honored with a magnificent ceremony in Venice. The Byzantine Empire, which was under Ottoman blockade, also had hope. In 1437, the emperor brought all the top Orthodox priests with him and proceeded to Europe to debate the union with the Catholic Church, signed the church union at the Council of Florence, and prepared to launch a crusade. The Byzantine emperor despatched his ambassador Janaki Torzello to Italy and Hungary in 1442 and pushed for the quick implementation of the crusade plan. The Byzantine emperor formed a friendship with Karamanoğlu İbrahim Bey and urged him to march on Akşehir and Beyşehir in 1443. II. Murat quickly took action with his Kapıkulu warriors. On the other hand, Prince Alaeddin marched with Amasya soldiers. This time, the Ottomans ravaged and devastated Karaman Province, including Konya and Larende, but recognizing the situation in Rumelia, II. Murat signed peace and returned to Edirne. Hunyadi Janos, who knew well that the Ottoman army, consisting primarily of timars, was dispersed in the fall, crossed the Danube River in October 1443, followed by the Serbian tyrant and the new Hungarian King Ladislas. By defeating the Rumelian army, he took Niş and Sofia and reached the remaining Balkan passes that led to the Meriç Valley. II. Murat halted them at the Izladi Pass on 24 November 1443.

Shaken by the Death of His Son Alaeddin

The march of the Hungarians into the Balkans led to new movements in the Balkans and Anatolia, as in the west. Skanderbeg fled and ran to Albania, sparking the uprising. In southern Albania, Araniti became active again. Meanwhile, II. Murat’s son Alâeddin Ali Çelebi, whom he trusted immensely, passed away at Amasya. II got the news of his son’s death. Murat experienced a huge shock. On the same days, he caught Turahan Bey, the supreme ruler of the frontier forces in Rumelia, and imprisoned him in Tokat, on the grounds that he did not exhibit the requisite opposition against the Hungarian armies. Meanwhile, the Karamanids took action again in Anatolia, advancing as far as Sivrihisar, Beypazarı, Ankara and Karahisar in the spring of 1444, and seizing the Akşehir and Beyşehir areas. Upon the involvement of Anatolia, II. Murat sought to establish an accord with the Hungarians by making several concessions. Because he had to give priority to the Karamanoğlu Principality. Thinking that he would forge an arrangement with the Hungarians, he took his Kapıkulu warriors and proceeded against the Karamanoğulları. However, instead of advancing on Konya, he signed a “sevgendname”, termed an oath letter, with the ambassadors of İbrahim Bey at Bursa Yenişehir and returned the areas he had captured in 1438. II. Thus, Murat fended off the two-way threat to the state by retiring from the significant sites he had captured in the west and east.

He Left His Throne to His Son Mehmet

II felt that he had began an era of peace for the Ottoman Empire with the agreements he signed with the Hungarians in the west and the Karamanoğlu Principality in the east. Displaying a remarkable example of renunciation, Murat gave over his kingdom to his son Mehmet in front of the Kapıkulu and Beys in Mihaliç in August 1444 and devoted himself to religion near Bursa. II, who was also known for his penchant for entertainment and booze. Murat’s abdication, leaving his kingdom to a 12-year-old kid, drove the state into a terrible despair. II. During the earliest days of Mehmet’s rule, Çandarlı Halil Pasha obtained considerable power. Other viziers, particularly Şehabettin and tiny Mehmet’s sons, Zağanos and İbrahim, turned against him. European governments, which learned about the administrative weakness in the Ottoman Empire, seized this position as a chance to attack the Ottoman Empire. The Byzantine emperor, Venice, the Papacy and the Serbian despot Yanko and the Hungarian king decided to engage on a crusade against the Turks on August 4, 1444. The possibility of war coming from Europe scared Edirne. Some individuals started to relocate farther into the nation. Parallel to the preparations in Europe, Orhan, the pretender to the sultanate at home, was dispatched from Istanbul to Çatalca by the Byzantine Empire in the summer of the same year. When Orhan could not hold on in Çatalca, he fled to Dobruca. When Şehabettin Pasha’s diligent pursuit achieved consequences, he had to take sanctuary in Istanbul again.

Turkish Presence in the Balkans was Consolidated with the Battle of Varna

The Ottoman Empire executed a huge slaughter in Edirne, on the day the crusaders and Hungarians crossed the Danube River, against individuals who followed the Hurufism religion, a warped version of the Shia faith, on 18-22 September 1444. During this tragedy, 7 thousand dwellings were turned to ashes. Meanwhile, the Hungarian-Wallachian forces moving over the Danube reached Varna. Simultaneously, the Venetian fleet barricaded the Gallipoli Strait, preventing help from reaching to Rumelia by water. The viziers who intended to eliminate the vacuum in the state administration, as a consequence of tremendous persistence, II. They made Murat accept the throne again. II. While Mehmet stayed in Edirne as sultan, at the demand of Halil Pasha, Mehmet II. Murat took over the army as commander-in-chief. In the great pitched battle waged in Varna on November 10, 1444, the Hungarian monarch first disrupted the Ottoman lines with a vigorous charge with his horse forces. II. Murat sought to flee from the Hungarian soldiers nearing his headquarters, but Karaca Bey blocked him. Thereupon, the troops gathered around the sultan’s banner again. Meanwhile, the Hungarian King Ladislas was encircled by the Janissaries, was dragged off his horse and was executed.

This circumstance led the morale of the Hungarian army to deteriorate. Yanko, the commander-in-chief of the Crusader army, retreated from the square with difficulty. The magnificent triumph was announced throughout the whole Islamic world. According to a Balkan historian, this victory decided the destiny of Byzantium and secured Turkish rule in the Balkans. II. Despite all the urging, Murat did not accept to return to his throne. After a short stay in Edirne, he returned to Manisa. The income of Aydın, Menteşe and Saruhan provinces was allotted to him. Since his authority and power in the country were re-established after Varna, he lived like a sultan in Manisa. During this era, the fight between Çandarlı Halil Pasha and his competitors increased. II. Zağanos and Şehabettin Pasha, who persuaded Mehmet to continue a hard policy against the Byzantine, Serbian ruler and Anatolian lords, triggered Murat’s involvement. Despite the enormous victory obtained in Varna, the danger for the Ottoman Empire was not totally erased. The Hungarians took action again two years later. The Wallachian ruler, who helped with them, conquered Rusçuk. In the same days, Davut Çelebi, who claimed the Ottoman throne, was also transported to Dobruja by the Byzantine Empire. However, he did not acquire any results.

Ascended to the Throne for the Second Time

They sought to put the state in a trap again. Because of the incitement of Çandarlı Halil Pasha, the janissaries also rebelled. A gang of rebels vowed to travel to the throne claimant Orhan Çelebi in Istanbul. The revolt could only be defeated with the assistance of the people. Situation, II. He made it obligatory for Murat to succeed to the throne. Vizier Şehabettin Şahin, governor of Rumelia, welcomed him back to the throne. II. Murat set off quickly from Manisa on 5 May 1446. Then, probably due to the revolt in Edirne, he changed his mind and came to Bursa. At the end of August, he traveled into Rumelia and reached Edirne without his son’s knowledge. Meanwhile, II. They forced Mehmet make a proclamation stating he handed up the throne in favor of his father. II. Murat took on his duties again after a two-year sabbatical. II. Mehmet was named crown prince and transported to Manisa.

The Second Kosovo War Also Ended in Victory

II. When Murat succeeded to the throne, he first stood in front of the Kerme city walls on 27 November 1446 to subdue the tyrant of Morea. After the walls were taken and demolished on December 10, he proceeded as far as Petras and Klarentza. Meanwhile, the Byzantine Empire again proclaimed loyalty to the Ottoman Empire. The Wallachian tyrant also despatched diplomats to make peace. However, Hungarian King Yanko executed him in 1447. Kocacık Fortress was also captured from Skanderbeg in Albania. Meanwhile, news was obtained that Yanko was headed towards Albania. II. Murat welcomed the Hungarian King Yanko in the Kosovo Plain. The Hungarians suffered tremendous defeat in the fight between 17-20 October 1448.

Yanko was able to battle under the auspices of chariots strengthened with weapons (battalion war), as in 1444. This time, the Serbs did not collaborate with the Hungarians and the Karamanids dispatched military help to Murat. In the summer of 1450, II. Murat brought his son Mehmet with him and launched a second mission to Albania. This time he besieged Akçahisar, but upon the suspicion that Yanko would strike again, he lifted the extended siege and withdrew his soldiers. In the winter of that year, a grand wedding was organized in Edirne for the marriage of Murat’s son Mehmet to Sitti Hatun, the daughter of Dulkadiroğlu Süleyman Bey. After the wedding, II. Murat grew sick and died on February 3, 1451. Murat II was 48 years old when he went away. In his will written on August 2, 1446, he wrote: “They will lay a coffin on the floor of the grave next to my late son Ali in Bursa… They will build a shrine over me, with the top open so that it will not rain on me… If anyone from my lineage dies, they should not lie in a coma next to me, “Do not bring them to me.” said.

Made the Turks the Sole Sovereign of the Balkans

II. During the reign of Murat, the expansion and settlement of the Ottomans in the Balkans became certain. Ducas said, “Today, the Turks in the places from the Gallipoli Strait to Athens are more than the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia.” he says. II. In the reign of Murat, the forces and conditions that determined the real power at the center and the relations between the center and the provinces were quite different from those in later periods. II. During the reign of Murat, the superior position of Çandar people in the state was strengthened. The first vizier was Bayezid, the second vizier was Çandarlı İbrahim, and the third vizier was Hacı İvaz Pasha. Çandarlis lost their former influence because they served Çelebi Mehmet’s rivals in Rumelia. Çelebi Mehmet trusted Bayezid Pasha. Bayezid Pasha, II. When Murat ascended the throne, he was in control of all state affairs as grand vizier and governor of Rumelia. Çandarlı İbrahim, who was a member of the ulema and had no direct influence on the soldiers, managed to escape from Bayezid Pasha together with Hacı İvaz and took over the position of vizier, remaining in this position until his death on 25 August 1429. After Çandarlı, Amasyalı Mehmet Ağa became vizier in July 1430. II. During the reign of Murat, margraves had the power and influence to play an important role in the state.

Initially, Mihaloğlu Mehmet Bey became the head of the frontier forces of Pasha Yiğitoğlu Turahan Bey after his death in 1422. Turahan Bey would manage the raids on Greece and the Peloponnese, with Tırhala and Yenişehir as centers. The second end zone was initially Serres against Thessaloniki and Ergiri in Albania. This region belonged to Ali, İsa and Barak from Evrenosoğulları. The third end zone was Skopje. After Pasha Yiğit Bey, his adopted son İshak Bey, and after his death, his son İsa and Mustafa Beys were dominant here. Their area of ​​activity was Serbia and Bosnia. Ishak Bey expanded his raids to Croatia and Dalmatia. The center of the fourth region was Vidin, from where expeditions were made against Serbia, Hungary and Wallachia.

Firuz Bey’s son, Mehmet Bey, was active in Niğbolu and Gümülüoğulları was active in Silistra. These border sanjaks had a hereditary and semi-feudal structure that continued the old Ottoman tradition. The margraves did not hesitate to oppose the sultan and the beylerbey representing the central power, and even support those who claimed the sultanate. II. Murat never trusted the margraves. During this period, as the Christian forces increasingly used firearms and the emergence of a strong enemy like Yanko, the margraves realized their weaknesses and felt the need to be more closely tied to the center. II. After Murat, their power and influence disappeared into history. Ottoman scientific life, II. He showed great progress during the reign of Murat. In this period, the personality of mufti and judge Molla Yegan is dominant.

Many masters of the era of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, including Hızır Bey and Hatipzade Tacettin İbrahim, were among his students. During the reign of Murat, many valuable scholars came from Arabia, Turkestan and Crimea. The main ones are Molla Gürani, Alaeddin et-Tûsî, Şerefeddin Kırîmî, Seydi Ahmet Kırîmî, The owners of “Bahrü’l-Ulûm” are Alâeddin es-Samerkandî, Seydi Ali Arabî and Acem Sinan. Most of them were the students of Sayyid Şerif el-Cürcânî and Sadettin et-Teftâzânî, and they enlivened the scientific life by bringing the scientific discussion topics between these two masters to Anatolia. II. During the reign of Murat, Zeyniyye and Mevleviyye received attention from the state. Bayramiyye also spread widely. II. Murat’s grant of tax immunity to the followers of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli helped this sect to spread and develop. During this period, the Yazıcızade family, one of the Hacı Bayram caliphs, has a distinguished place in Turkish cultural history.

Yazıcızade Mehmet’s Muhammediyye and Ali’s II. His “Selçukname”, which he dedicated to Murat, were works that represented two strong movements of the period. Sufism appears in the first, and Oghuz tradition appears in the second, both of which constitute excellent examples of Turkish prose of that period. The Oghuz-Kayi tradition that dominated this period served a more practical political purpose, which was to elevate the Ottoman dynasty against the Timurids and to gain influence in Turkmen circles. II.

The translation of many works from Arabic and Persian into Turkish during the reign of Murat was important for the development of Ottoman Turkish culture. II. Murat had his major works done in Edirne.

The great architectural works of this period are the New Mosque and the Ergene Bridge. II. Murat laid the foundation of the mosque while he was on his Hungarian expedition in 1438, but the mosque was only completed in 1447.

How did Murat die?

Many Ottoman history enthusiasts wonder in which war Murat II died. However, the cause of Sultan Murat’s death is not any war. II. Murat died due to cerebral hemorrhage on February 3, 1451. II, who died at the age of 47. After Murat, his son II came to the throne. Mehmed appeared and the Ottoman Empire entered a period of rise.

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