HomeScientistPythagoras: Ancient Wisdom in Numbers and Nature

Pythagoras: Ancient Wisdom in Numbers and Nature

Readers are introduced to the realm of ancient Greek civilization through the biography of Pythagoras of Samos. It is safe to refer to this individual as a legend. Great mathematician, mystic, and philosopher Pythagoras also started the intellectual and theological movement known as Pythagoreanism. Pythagoras was a political figure as well, leaving his writings for his descendants.

Early life and adolescence

It is challenging to pinpoint Pythagoras’ exact birthday. His approximate birth year has been determined by historians to be 580 BC. Birthplace: Samos, an island in Greece.

The philosopher’s father was Mnesarchus, while his mother was Parthenia (Parthenida, Pythias). Legend has it that the young couple’s honeymoon included a trip to Delphi. There, the newlyweds encountered an oracle who told them that their son would be born soon. The youngster would grow up to be a challenging individual known for his intelligence, good looks, and heroic exploits, according to the tradition.

The prophecy soon started to come true; the girl gave birth to a child who was named Pythias in accordance with old tradition. Pythia, the priestess of Apollo, was honored by having the newborn named Pythagoras. The future mathematician’s father did everything within his power to carry out the heavenly heritage. In addition to building a shrine to Apollo, Happy Mnesarchus shows the child a lot of love and attention.

According to some accounts, the family also reared Eunostus and Tyrrhenus, the elder brothers of the Greek philosopher.

Pythagoras’s father was an expert at refining gold stones, and his family enjoyed great wealth. The boy was gifted with remarkable aptitude and displayed curiosity about many sciences even as a young toddler.

Hermodamant was the future philosopher’s first instructor. He imparted fundamental knowledge on Pythagoras in the areas of music, painting, reading, rhetoric, and grammar. Pythagoras’ teacher forced him to read the Odyssey and Iliad and learn verses from poems by heart in order to help him strengthen his memory.

A few years later, the eighteen-year-old kid, equipped with a ready supply of information, traveled to Egypt to continue his study under the knowledgeable priests. However, the route to Egypt was difficult during that time, as it was off-limits to Greek travelers. Subsequently, Pythagoras made a brief stopover on the island of Lesbos, where he studied astrology, medicine, physics, dialectics, and theogony with Pherecydes of Syros.

After a few years of residence on the island, Pythagoras moved to Miletus, the home of the renowned Thales, who is credited with founding the first philosophical school in Greek history.

Pythagoras was able to gain information at the Milesian school, but he decided to further his education in Egypt when Thales advised him to.

Here, Pythagoras meets the priests, explores Egyptian temples that are off-limits to outsiders, picks up their customs and secrets, and soon ascends to the position of priest. Because he was educated in a city with a developed culture, Pythagoras was the most learned person of his time.

Then, following the start of the Persian War, the well-known mathematician’s life undergoes a significant transformation. After being taken prisoner, Pythagoras spends several years in Babylon.

Mysteries and going back home

According to old stories, Persian magicians met with a gifted philosopher and a man of divine beauty in Babylon (the mathematician’s portrait, which was created using images of ancient artists and sculptures, confirms this). Pythagoras began studying paranormal phenomena and picked up on Eastern peoples’ knowledge of astronomy, math, and medicine.

The Chaldeans connected the development of these sciences to notions from the supernatural, and Pythagoras’ later contributions to mathematics and philosophy mirrored this perspective.

Twelve years after Pythagoras’ forced exile in Babylon, the Persian monarch, who is already aware of the Greek scholar’s renowned teachings, releases the sage. After returning home, Pythagoras starts imparting the information he has gained to his own people.

The philosopher became well-liked by the locals very rapidly. Despite being prohibited from attending large assemblies, ladies attended his presentations anyhow. Pythagoras met the woman he would marry during one of these gatherings.

A highly educated individual was required to work as a teacher among unethical people. He became into a sort of deity, the people’s embodiment of cleanliness. Pythagoras was an expert in the techniques used by Egyptian priests, and he could instill wisdom in his listeners and cleanse their spirits.

The sage mostly taught at temples and on the streets, but eventually he started teaching anyone who wished to learn in his own house. This unique educational method stands out due to its intricacy. Students were on probation for three to five years. During teachings, listeners were not allowed to speak or ask questions, which instilled patience and modesty in them.

Computer Science

He was a brilliant speaker and sage educator who taught students in several fields, including mathematics, political science, music, and medicine. Future well-known people, scholars, astronomers, historians, and political leaders emerged from Pythagoras’ school.

In geometry, Pythagoras made a tremendous contribution. The name of the well-known historical figure is known today thanks to mathematical problems used in school to master the well-known Pythagorean theorem. The following is an example of a formula for solving some Pythagorean problems: A2 plus B2 equals C2. The lengths of the legs in this instance are a and b, and the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is c.

There is also an inverse Pythagorean theorem, which was created by other mathematicians with similar levels of literacy. However, the Pythagorean theorem has only 367 scientific proofs, indicating its basic significance for geometry as a whole.

The “Pythagorean table” was another creation made by the renowned Greek scientist. The multiplication table, as it is now generally known, was a teaching tool for the philosopher’s school children back then.

The mathematical relationship between the length of the lyre’s vibrating strings during a musical performance was an intriguing discovery made during that historical time. Other instruments can be used with safety using this method.


The philosopher studied numbers carefully in an effort to comprehend their nature and the significance of objects and phenomena. He connected numerical characteristics to essential aspects of life, such as humanity, mortality, disease, sorrow, etc.

The Pythagoreans were the ones who separated numbers into odd and even. Pythagoras believed that the square of a number held significance for the planet’s life, including justice and equality. Consistency was typified by nine, and death by eight.

Followers of Pythagoras’ teachings identified the number five (3+2) as the emblem of marriage, with even numbers denoting the feminine depiction and odd numbers denoting the male.

People now have the chance to glimpse into the end of the future and determine their level of compatibility with their future half, all thanks to Pythagoras’ wisdom. You can apply the Pythagorean square numerological scheme for this. By “playing” with specific numbers (birthdate, day, and month), you may create a graph that graphically depicts a person’s destiny.

The adherents of Pythagoras thought that numbers might have a profound impact on society at large. Understanding their chain significance is crucial. Positive and negative numbers exist, such as thirteen and seventeen. As a science, numerology is not acknowledged as official; rather, it is regarded as a set of ideas and information.

Philosophy-based instruction

There are two components to Pythagoras’ philosophical teachings:

  1. Scientific method of understanding the world.
  2. Mysticism and religion.

Pythagoras left behind some unpreserved works. The great sage and master wrote very little; instead, he taught anyone who were interested in learning the nuances of a certain subject primarily orally. The Pythagoreans, the philosopher’s disciples, later transmitted information about his expertise.

Pythagoras is credited with founding a secret society, innovating religion, and advocating acousmatic ideas. He prohibited his followers from consuming animal products, particularly the heart, which is essentially a metaphor of life. It was said that beans made from Dionysus-Zagreus’s blood were forbidden to be touched. Pythagoras disapproved of drinking, using vulgar language, and other foolish actions.

The philosopher held that moral and physical purity might save and free man’s soul. His beliefs are comparable to those of the ancient Vedas, which postulate that the soul migrates quantitatively from heaven to an animal or human body until it has the right to return to God in heaven.

Pythagoras refrained from imposing his philosophy on laypersons whose goal was merely to comprehend the fundamentals of the exact sciences. His unique teachings were meant for a restricted group of fully “enlightened” people.

Individual existence

After being taken prisoner in Babylon and returning to his native Greece, Pythagoras encountered Theana, a girl of extraordinary beauty who joined his meetings in secret. The age of the ancient philosopher (56–60 years old) was already advanced. Following their marriage, the couple welcomed a boy and a girl into their family, whose names are unknown.

According to certain historical accounts, Pythagoras’ friend and fellow philosopher Brontinus was Theana’s father.


In the southern Italian Greek settlement of Croton stood Pythagoras’ school. Pythagoras was compelled to flee the area due to a democratic rebellion. He proceeded to Metapontum, but this town was also affected by armed combat.

The well-known philosopher was opposed by many people who did not agree with his life’s lessons. Three accounts exist regarding Pythagoras’ demise. In the first, the mathematician had once declined to teach hidden occult procedures to a man who turned out to be the murderer. The rejected man destroyed the Pythagorean Academy building out of hatred, and the philosopher perished defending his students.

According to the second legend, the scientist’s disciples built a bridge out of their own bodies within the blazing house in an attempt to save their instructor. Furthermore, Pythagoras underestimated his contributions to human evolution by passing away from a heart attack.

The most widely accepted explanation for the sage’s demise is that he passed away unintentionally during a battle in Metapontum. Pythagoras lived to be between eighty and ninety years old.

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